“The Genuine Nature of Chinese Intentions in Sub-Saharan Africa – Peaceful Coexistence or New World Order?” by Kapok Tree Diplomacy
PREVIEW includes a Table of Contents. Complete essay is 5,920 words, 20 pages double-spaced, 29 references. Kapok Tree Diplomacy. May 2010.
Section One – Period Summaries of Growing China-Africa Partnership
Period of 1950 – 1989. Kieran Uchehara describes three distinct periods in the growing China-Africa partnership beginning in the 1950’s and 1960’s when China supported several nationalist movements in African states who were striving for independence, followed by China’s procurement of a permanent seat on the United Nations (UN) Security Council, and concluding with the recent “liberalization and subsequent growth of the Chinese economy,” especially after the civilian uprising at Tiananmen Square in 1989 (96-97). An important component of the ideological roots of China’s partnership with Africa was solidified during the first phase, South-South cooperation and resistance to Western hegemony.
This ideological thread formally emerged during the Bandung Conference which was held in 1955 and attended by 29 Asian and African nations (Uchehara 96). “Colonialism, imperialism and the hegemonic position of the Western powers” were main topics on the economic and cultural agenda (Uchehara 96). It was during this conference that the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence that would become a major foundation of China’s soft power impetus were adopted by China and Africa: (1) mutual respect for political and economic sovereignty; (2) mutual non-interference in internal affairs; (3) equality and mutual benefit; (4) peaceful resolution of conflicts; and (5) equal and fair representation in world affairs (Mensah 98).
Mensah also notes that while China is often lauded for its respect for sovereignty and non-interference, multilateral cooperation with African nations is conditioned by one important principle: adhere to the one China policy and reject official relations with Taiwan “which its views as a rogue or renegade province (98).
Table of Contents
I. Period Summaries of Growing China-Africa Partnership
A. Period of 1950 – 1989
B. Period of 1990 – 1999
C. Period of 2000 to the Present
II. China’s Mercantilist Intentions
A. State Capitalism
B. Trade Ownership Export Strategy
C. Application of the Beijing Consensus in Africa
D. Soft Power
E. National Security
F. Beijing’s New World Order
III. Problems with Peaceful Coexistence – Resistance and Contradictions
A. African Resistance and Unkept Promises
B. Contradictions with China’s Fulfillment of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence