“Challenges Facing Outside Actors in Balancing Punitive and Reconciliatory Measures in Nation/State-Building and the Optimum Division of Labor to Overcome Them” by Kapok Tree Diplomacy
I. Punitive and Reconciliatory Measures Available in Nation/State-Building
B. Tasks of Nation/State Building (NSB)
C. Punitive and Reconciliatory Measures Available in NSB Processes
1. Military Security
4. Justice and Reconciliation
II. Challenges Facing Outside Actors in Nation/State Building
A. Military/Security Pillar – Challenges Facing IOs, Coalitions and MNFs, and States
B. Political and Governance Pillar – Challenges Facing IOs, Coalitions and MNFs, and States
C. Economic Pillar – Challenges Facing IOs, Coalitions and MNFs, and States
D. Justice and Reconciliation Pillar – Challenges Facing IOs, Coalitions and MNFs, and States
III. Section Three – Optimum Division of Labor to Meet NSB Challenges
A. Proper Mix – International, Regional, Local, Multilateral & Bilateral
B. Military/Economic/Political Division of Labor
Section One – Punitive and Reconciliatory Measures Available in Nation/State-Building
Definitions. Nation-building and state-building are similar but not identical concepts with context often determining which term is applicable. Mary Thida Lun defines nation-building as “the indigenous and domestic creation and reinforcement of the complex social and cultural identities that relate to and define citizenship within the territory of the state” (v). The Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) describe it as “deliberate strategies – usually by domestic élites – to forge a common national identity (against plural identities) around the idea of the nation” (13).
State-building, on the other hand, may be defined as “the restoration and rebuilding of the institutions and apparatus of the state, particularly through building capacity and providing the essential infrastructure for the state to function” (Lun v), while the OECD adds that it incorporates “purposeful action to develop the capacity, institutions and legitimacy of the state” (14).
Achieving this common identity and legitimacy is where the challenges arrive for external actors after brutal and protracted intra-state conflicts. Interestingly, Lun sees the “technical” process of state-building enabling the “political” process of nation-building and favors IOs and states focusing on the former and internal actors like NGOs on the latter (9). She explains, “While state-building can enable nation-building, the former does not necessarily guarantee the latter … There can be a highly effective state apparatus that contributes nothing to the emergence of a sense of nationhood, and vice versa” (9).
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